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Secret Seven Sisters: Rise and Rise of the seven sisters.

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On August 28, 1928, in the Scottish highlands, began the secret story of oil.

Three men had an appointment at Achnacarry Castle – a Dutchman, an American and an Englishman.

The Dutchman was Henry Deterding, a man nicknamed the Napoleon of Oil, having exploited a find in Sumatra. He joined forces with a rich ship owner and painted Shell salesman and together the two men founded Royal Dutch Shell.

The American was Walter C. Teagle and he represents the Standard Oil Company, founded by John D. Rockefeller at the age of 31 – the future Exxon. Oil wells, transport, refining and distribution of oil – everything is controlled by Standard oil.

The Englishman, Sir John Cadman, was the director of the Anglo-Persian oil Company, soon to become BP. On the initiative of a young Winston Churchill, the British government had taken a stake in BP and the Royal Navy switched its fuel from coal to oil. With fuel-hungry ships, planes and tanks, oil became “the blood of every battle”.

The new automobile industry was developing fast, and the Ford T was selling by the million. The world was thirsty for oil, and companies were waging a merciless contest but the competition was making the market unstable.

That August night, the three men decided to stop fighting and to start sharing out the world’s oil. Their vision was that production zones, transport costs, sales prices – everything would be agreed and shared. And so began a great cartel, whose purpose was to dominate the world, by controlling its oil.

Four others soon joined them, and they came to be known as the Seven Sisters – the biggest oil companies in the world.

In the first episode, we travel across the Middle East, through both time and space.

“We waged the Iran-Iraq war and I say we waged it, because one country had to be used to destroy the other. As they already benefit from the oil bonanza, and they’re building up financal reserves, from time to time they have to be bled.”

– Xavier Houzel, an oil trader

Throughout the region’s modern history, since the discovery of oil, the Seven Sisters have sought to control the balance of power.

They have supported monarchies in Iran and Saudi Arabia, opposed the creation of OPEC, profiting from the Iran-Iraq war, leading to the ultimate destruction of Saddam Hussein and Iraq.

The Seven Sisters were always present, and almost always came out on top.

Since that notorious meeting at Achnacarry Castle on August 28, 1928, they have never ceased to plot, to plan and to scheme.

At the end of the 1960s, the Seven Sisters, the major oil companies, controlled 85 percent of the world’s oil reserves. Today, they control just 10 percent.

New hunting grounds are therefore required, and the Sisters have turned their gaze towards Africa. With peak oil, wars in the Middle East, and the rise in crude prices, Africa is the oil companies’ new battleground.

“Everybody thought there could be oil in Sudan but nobody knew anything. It was revealed through exploration by the American company Chevron, towards the end of the 70s. And that was the beginning of the second civil war, which went on until 2002. It lasted for 19 years and cost a million and a half lives and the oil business was at the heart of it.”

– Gerard Prunier, a historian

But the real story, the secret story of oil, begins far from Africa.

In their bid to dominate Africa, the Sisters installed a king in Libya, a dictator in Gabon, fought the nationalisation of oil resources in Algeria, and through corruption, war and assassinations, brought Nigeria to its knees.

Oil may be flowing into the holds of huge tankers, but in Lagos, petrol shortages are chronic.

The country’s four refineries are obsolete and the continent’s main oil exporter is forced to import refined petrol – a paradox that reaps fortunes for a handful of oil companies.

Encouraged by the companies, corruption has become a system of government – some $50bn are estimated to have ‘disappeared’ out of the $350bn received since independence.

But new players have now joined the great oil game.

China, with its growing appetite for energy, has found new friends in Sudan, and the Chinese builders have moved in. Sudan’s President Omar al-Bashir is proud of his co-operation with China – a dam on the Nile, roads, and stadiums.

In order to export 500,000 barrels of oil a day from the oil fields in the South – China financed and built the Heglig pipeline connected to Port Sudan – now South Sudan’s precious oil is shipped through North Sudan to Chinese ports.

In a bid to secure oil supplies out of Libya, the US, the UK and the Seven Sisters made peace with the once shunned Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, until he was killed during the Libyan uprising of 2011, but the flow of Libyan oil remains uninterrupted.

In need of funds for rebuilding, Libya is now back to pumping more than a million barrels of oil per day. And the Sisters are happy to oblige.

In the Caucasus, the US and Russia are vying for control of the region. The great oil game is in full swing. Whoever controls the Caucasus and its roads, controls the transport of oil from the Caspian Sea.

Tbilisi, Erevan and Baku – the three capitals of the Caucasus. The oil from Baku in Azerbaijan is a strategic priority
for all the major companies.

From the fortunes of the Nobel family to the Russian revolution, to World War II, oil from the Caucasus and the Caspian has played a central role. Lenin fixated on conquering the Azeri capital Baku for its oil, as did Stalin and Hitler.

On his birthday in 1941, Adolf Hitler received a chocolate and cream birthday cake, representing a map. He chose the slice with Baku on it.

On June 22nd 1941, the armies of the Third Reich invaded Russia. The crucial battle of Stalingrad was the key to the road to the Caucasus and Baku’s oil, and would decide the outcome of the war.

Stalin told his troops: “Fighting for one’s oil is fighting for one’s freedom.”

After World War II, President Nikita Krushchev would build the Soviet empire and its Red Army with revenues from the USSR’s new-found oil reserves.

Decades later, oil would bring that empire to its knees, when Saudi Arabia and the US would conspire to open up the oil taps, flood the markets, and bring the price of oil down to $13 per barrel. Russian oligarchs would take up the oil mantle, only to be put in their place by their president, Vladimir Putin, who knows that oil is power.

The US and Putin‘s Russia would prop up despots, and exploit regional conflicts to maintain a grip on the oil fields of the Caucusus and the Caspian.

But they would not have counted on the rise of a new, strong and hungry China, with an almost limitless appetite for oil and energy. Today, the US, Russia and China contest the control of the former USSR’s fossil fuel reserves, and the supply routes. A three-handed match, with the world as spectators, between three ferocious beasts – The American eagle, the Russian bear, and the Chinese dragon.

Peak oil – the point in time at which the highest rate of oil extraction has been reached, and after which world production will start decline. Many geologists and the International Energy Agency say the world’s crude oil output reached its peak in 2006.

But while there may be less oil coming out of the ground, the demand for it is definitely on the rise.

One cant help but wonder what happens when oil becomes more and more inaccessible, while at the same time, new powers like China and India try to fulfill their growing energy needs.

And countries like Iran, while suffering international sanctions, have welcomed these new oil buyers, who put business ahead of lectures on human rights and nuclear ambitions.

At the same time, oil-producing countries have had enough with the Seven Sisters controlling their oil assets. Nationalisation of oil reserves around the world has ushered in a new generation of oil companies all vying for a slice of the oil pie.

These are the new Seven Sisters.

Saudi Arabia’s Saudi Aramco, the largest and most sophisticated oil company in the world; Russia’s Gazprom, a company that Russia’s President Vladimir Putin wrested away from the oligarchs; The China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), which, along with its subsidiary, Petrochina, is the world’s secnd largest company in terms of market value; The National Iranian Oil Company, which has a monopoly on exploration, extraction, transportation and exportation of crude oil in Iran – OPEC’s second largest oil producer after Saudi Arabia; Venezuela’s PDVSA, a company the late president Hugo Chavez dismantled and rebuilt into his country’s economic engine and part of his diplomatic arsenal; Brazil’s Petrobras, a leader in deep water oil production, that pumps out 2 million barrels of crude oil a day; and Malaysia’s Petronas – Asia’s most profitable company in 2012.

Mainly state-owned, the new Seven Sisters control a third of the world’s oil and gas production, and more than a third of the world’s reserves. The old Seven Sisters, by comparison, produce a tenth of the world’s oil, and control only three percent of the reserves.

The balance has shifted.

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Wenger has lost touch with modern football

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When Ivan Gazidis began the final negotiations to sign Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain from Southampton, Arsenal’s
chief executive arrived with a battery of lawyers and accountants by his side.
They all went into a private meeting room with Saints officials, breaking off for hushed conversations in
corridors whenever the selling club raised the stakes.
By then Oxlade-Chamberlain had, unknowingly, been the subject of a complicated economic formula established by
the Harvard business boffins employed on a sizeable retainer by the club.
Problems: A resigned Arsene Wegner looks on from the bench as Arsenal lose to Aston Villa
The bid Arsenal have submitted for Newcastle and France midfielder Yohan Cabaye appears, on the surface, to be
a knee-jerk reaction to the injury crisis and the pressure put on them by fans to ‘SPEND SPEND SPEND’ during
their defeat against Aston Villa.
Instead, he has been on the radar of Arsenal’s European scout Gilles Grimandi for some time. But the
businessmen across the pond slow down the recruitment process.
Gazidis’ belief in their academic acumen is total, although he has always been reluctant to explain how players as
bad as Nicklas Bendtner, told he could skip training to go back to Denmark three weeks ago, is earning £55,000 a
week.

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Arsene Wenger, who earns £7.6million a year at the Emirates, authorised Bendtner’s contract when the striker
was still boasting about becoming the best player in the world. Arsenal are proud of their due diligence,
justifying frugal spending in the Kroenke years by the business brains brought in to put every potential recruit
through a complicated financial model.
Crocked: Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain could be out for six months after his knee injury
Wenger believes in the scientific principles established at the Emirates, although his team of scouts around the
world still work to the formula he brought with him in 1996.
His scouting team, headed by Steve Rowley, are asked to identify players with three distinctive characteristics:
pace, power and football Intelligence.
If only they had added a fourth — the mentality of champions — they really would be in business.
The dynamic training-ground environment, which was once the envy of the world when Thierry Henry, Dennis
Bergkamp and Robert Pires were pushing each other to reach new targets each day, has slowly been eroded.
There is tension in the air between Rowley and Bob Arber, Arsenal’s head of youth. At games, they don’t even
speak to each other.
Glory days: Robert Pires and Dennis Bergkamp were iconic figures during Arsenal’s success
They should be in constant communication, preserving the future of the club by monitoring the progress of
young players at Arsenal’s academy and bringing in the next generation. Instead, the young Gunners are on the
end of some hidings, losing 7-0 to Conference club Luton and beaten by a scratch team of Colchester kids 5-1
before the start of the season.
This is no way to run a football club and most people know that there is room for improvement in every area at
Arsenal.
Wenger has too much power — given the freedom of the football club because of his achievements at Highbury.
There he won three Barclays Premier League titles, four FA Cups and took Arsenal to within a whisker of
beating Barcelona at the Stade de France in 2006.
He knows the inner workings of every area of the club, which is rare in the modern game.
Spend, spend, spend: An Arsenal fan makes his feelings known to Wenger
Wenger’s detailed knowledge of every player’s contract even created an issue when Oxlade-Chamberlain was
making substitute appearances for Arsenal last season.
Written into the England winger’s deal is a clause stating that Arsenal must pay Saints £10,000 every time
Oxlade-Chamberlain appears for more than 20 minutes.
Incredibly a trend emerged, with Wenger bringing him off the bench after 72 minutes (v Stoke), 73 minutes
(Liverpool), 72 minutes (Coventry), 65 minutes (Norwich), 76 minutes (Fulham), 86 minutes (Tottenham), 67
minutes (Swansea), 73 minutes (West Ham), 71 minutes (Swansea), and 75 minutes (Reading).
Arsenal’s accounts department were stunned to receive an email from Southampton demanding payment for the
appearances, with the south coast club justifying their argument based on stoppage time.
Eventually Arsenal agreed to pay for the appearances and the story worked its way around the offices at the
Emirates with bafflement among staff.
They know Wenger calls the shots, but he is slow to move for targets.
Slow: Arsenal were too late when it came to trying to sign Wilfried Zaha from Crystal Palace
Last season Rowley was a regular at Crystal Palace matches, following Wilfried Zaha around the country as
Arsenal stepped up their interest.
Rowley would pop up at Leicester or Burnley, watching Zaha closely as Palace headed for the play-offs and
promotion back to the Barclays Premier League.
When it came to the crunch, Wenger’s assistant manager Steve Bould picked up the phone to an old friend at
Palace to ask for his assessment of the £15m forward.
By then it was too late. Zaha had been given permission to meet Sir Alex Ferguson and the deal was wrapped up
within a day.
The England winger is another one to get away, but everyone at Arsenal knows that Wenger — a thoroughly
charming and decent guy — has failed to keep pace with the modern game.
Managers need technical assistance and expertise, something the top clubs in the Premier League have finally
accepted.
Partnership: Jose Mourinho works with director of football Michael Emenalo to recruit players at Chelsea
At Chelsea, Jose Mourinho has returned to Stamford Bridge on the understanding that he must work closely with
director of football Michael Emenalo on transfer targets.
Manuel Pellegrini is working under the technical team — Ferran Soriano and Txiki Begiristain — as Manchester
City plan for five trophies in five years.
Tottenham have recruited Franco Baldini from Roma to work with Andre Villas-Boas as Daniel Levy returns to the
two-tiered European management structure he has always favoured.
Wenger has never been interested, preferring to rely on his own judgment and using Dick Law’s contacts book
when they make a move on a player.
Law, who is based in Dallas, met Wenger when he was working in south America and they became close during
David Dein’s time as vice-president.
He is popular with agents around the world, but they become frustrated when he pulls the plug on deals because
Wenger must always have the final word.
As Arsenal fans are aware, nothing adds up at the Emirates any more.

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Notice that in this photo shot, wenger is the only manager with his hand in his pocket, ironic considering his reluctance to spend.

Posted by Aduari Tekena. Teks4u200@gmail.com